Therapeutic Focus

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem with steadily increasing incidence, prevalence and cost. Key factors driving CKD in developed countries include aging populations and the current epidemic of obesity and its associated complications of hypertension and adult-onset diabetes. Nearly 80% of CKD cases have etiologies linked to hypertension and diabetes. The worldwide incidence of adult-onset diabetes alone has increased to more than 366 million.

According to the National Kidney Foundation (NKF), 37 million North American patients suffer from CKD. Stages 3 and 4 are characterized by progressively decreasing kidney function as measured by glomerular filtration rate. In Stage 5, kidney function is minimal to altogether absent and patients require regular dialysis or kidney transplant for survival. An estimated 71-97% of CKD patients have vitamin D insufficiency, which can lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and resultant debilitating diseases including bone disease, markedly increased bone fracture rates, pervasive soft tissue calcification, cardiovascular disease, muscle weakness and reduced quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that some, if not all, of these adverse outcomes can be prevented, mitigated or reversed by early diagnosis and proper treatment.

Prevalence of Stages 3-5 CKD and Related Comorbidities:

% of CKD Patients with Vitamin D Insufficiency
% of CKD Patients with SHPT
Moderate decrease in kidney function
18.7 million
Severe decrease in kidney function
1.4 million
Kidney failure
0.5 million

Levin, A et al., Kidney Int 2007;71:.31-38.
Gonzalez, E et al., Am J Nephrol 2004;24:503-510.
LaClair, R et al., Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 45:1026-1033.
Tentori, F et al., Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2015:10;93-109


© 2023 OPKO Health Inc.- All rights reserved. | Privacy Policy | Terms Of Use